Analysis of Fire Hazard in Campsite AreasAnalysis of Fire Hazard in Campsite Areas

[vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text][/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row full_width=”” parallax=”” parallax_image=””][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_custom_heading text=”Analysis of Fire Hazard in Campsite Areas” font_container=”tag:h2|text_align:center” google_fonts=”font_family:Montserrat%3Aregular%2C700|font_style:400%20regular%3A400%3Anormal”][vc_separator color=”custom” align=”align_center” border_width=”3″ accent_color=”#c44044″][vc_column_text]

(Journal Article)

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Journal: Fire Technology
Year: 2016
ISSN: 0015-2684
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Volume: 52
Issue: 3
Pages: 1–23
DOI: 10.1007/s10694-016-0591-5
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Miguel Almeida

Miguel Almeida

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The most common location for campsites is in forested or arborous areas. Given the regular use of combustible material by campers and the frequent use of campfires to cook, campsites become areas with a high propensity for the occurrence of fires. Moreover, fires occurring close to campsites can cause evacuations, dis-turbing their regular activities and jeopardizing tourism and likewise economic activi-ties. While some campsites have tents and caravans within a secure distance of each other, many other campsites have the tents and caravans very concentrated in a limited area, making it much easier for fire to spread from a tent to the next. Despite the occurrence of several of these events, the associated risk is currently not well studied or documented. The work presented in this paper was performed within the Portuguese research project FireCamp, whose main purpose was the analysis and documentation of the fire risk in campsites. Several topics were addressed and some of them will be presented within this paper, specifically: (1) understanding of the mechanisms associated to burning tents; (2) analysis of the combustibility of typical accessories used in campsites such as tents, sleeping bags or camping mattresses; (3) characterization of a campsite fuel cover and its surroundings via image analysis taken by unmanned aerial vehicles; and (4) modeling of fire spread in campsites. A pilot study was carried out between 2011 and 2014 in the Campsite of Coˆja, in Arganil—Coimbra—Portugal. Taking into consideration that external fires frequently threaten these sites, complementary to the analysis of the fuel distribution inside the campsite, the land use analysis in the surrounding area is also of great interest. Thus, a fuel map of the Campsite of Coˆja was produced based on a high-resolution map of the area obtained by aerial photography produced by drones. Based on this fuel map, a stochastic model was set up to predict the fire spread in the covered area. The results obtained in this pilot study are hereby presented. Additionally, several laboratory tests were carried out in order to analyze the high calorific values (HCV) and the time to ignition (TTI) of the materials of typical camping accessories. The values of HCV found are in the range of 22.45–45.45 MJ kg-1 and the values of TTI found are in the range of 118–224 s. These values show a high propensity for these materials to spread fire. Real tents with and without typical accessories inside (e.g., sleeping bags) were burnt in controlled environment in order to determine the mass loss decay, the increase of temperature and the convective airflows produced. Due to the convective flow inside the tent, these parameters were not considered as valid but these tests were important to understand the mechanisms associated to the burning of tents and the risk associated. The presence of combustible material inside a tent was found to be of high importance in order to sustain the combustion.

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José Raul Azinheira

José Raul Azinheira

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Alexandra Moutinho

Alexandra Moutinho

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João Caldas Pinto

João Caldas Pinto

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Marta Martins

Marta Martins

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José Carlos Pereira

José Carlos Pereira

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Jorge Silva

Jorge Silva

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Kouamana Bousson

Kouamana Bousson

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Luís Mário Ribeiro

Luís Mário Ribeiro

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Rita Ervilha

Rita Ervilha

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Domingos Xavier Viegas

Domingos Xavier Viegas

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Jorge Barata

Jorge Barata

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[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row full_width=”” parallax=”” parallax_image=””][vc_column width=”1/1″][vc_custom_heading text=”Analysis of Fire Hazard in Campsite Areas” font_container=”tag:h2|text_align:center” google_fonts=”font_family:Montserrat%3Aregular%2C700|font_style:400%20regular%3A400%3Anormal”][vc_separator color=”custom” align=”align_center” border_width=”3″ accent_color=”#c44044″][vc_column_text]

(Artigo em Revista)

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Revista: Fire Technology
Ano: 2016
ISSN: 0015-2684
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Volume: 52
Edição: 3
Páginas: 1–23
DOI: 10.1007/s10694-016-0591-5
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Miguel Almeida

Miguel Almeida

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The most common location for campsites is in forested or arborous areas. Given the regular use of combustible material by campers and the frequent use of campfires to cook, campsites become areas with a high propensity for the occurrence of fires. Moreover, fires occurring close to campsites can cause evacuations, dis-turbing their regular activities and jeopardizing tourism and likewise economic activi-ties. While some campsites have tents and caravans within a secure distance of each other, many other campsites have the tents and caravans very concentrated in a limited area, making it much easier for fire to spread from a tent to the next. Despite the occurrence of several of these events, the associated risk is currently not well studied or documented. The work presented in this paper was performed within the Portuguese research project FireCamp, whose main purpose was the analysis and documentation of the fire risk in campsites. Several topics were addressed and some of them will be presented within this paper, specifically: (1) understanding of the mechanisms associated to burning tents; (2) analysis of the combustibility of typical accessories used in campsites such as tents, sleeping bags or camping mattresses; (3) characterization of a campsite fuel cover and its surroundings via image analysis taken by unmanned aerial vehicles; and (4) modeling of fire spread in campsites. A pilot study was carried out between 2011 and 2014 in the Campsite of Coˆja, in Arganil—Coimbra—Portugal. Taking into consideration that external fires frequently threaten these sites, complementary to the analysis of the fuel distribution inside the campsite, the land use analysis in the surrounding area is also of great interest. Thus, a fuel map of the Campsite of Coˆja was produced based on a high-resolution map of the area obtained by aerial photography produced by drones. Based on this fuel map, a stochastic model was set up to predict the fire spread in the covered area. The results obtained in this pilot study are hereby presented. Additionally, several laboratory tests were carried out in order to analyze the high calorific values (HCV) and the time to ignition (TTI) of the materials of typical camping accessories. The values of HCV found are in the range of 22.45–45.45 MJ kg-1 and the values of TTI found are in the range of 118–224 s. These values show a high propensity for these materials to spread fire. Real tents with and without typical accessories inside (e.g., sleeping bags) were burnt in controlled environment in order to determine the mass loss decay, the increase of temperature and the convective airflows produced. Due to the convective flow inside the tent, these parameters were not considered as valid but these tests were important to understand the mechanisms associated to the burning of tents and the risk associated. The presence of combustible material inside a tent was found to be of high importance in order to sustain the combustion.

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José Raul Azinheira

José Raul Azinheira

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Alexandra Moutinho

Alexandra Moutinho

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João Caldas Pinto

João Caldas Pinto

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Marta Martins

Marta Martins

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José Carlos Pereira

José Carlos Pereira

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Jorge Silva

Jorge Silva

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Kouamana Bousson

Kouamana Bousson

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Luís Mário Ribeiro

Luís Mário Ribeiro

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Rita Ervilha

Rita Ervilha

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Domingos Xavier Viegas

Domingos Xavier Viegas

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Jorge Barata

Jorge Barata

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